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DNA
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The Mandella Environment

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Monday: A Day

Aim: How does DNA direct the making of proteins?

Do Now: In which part of the cell are proteins made? Think back!!

Procedure: Students will draw a huge cell in their notebooks. We will label the parts of the animal cell. This will serve as a review as well as a backdrop for the RNA lesson. Explain how DNA is located in the nucleus and the ribosomes are in the cytoplasm. Ask how DNA gets to the ribosomes so they can make the proteins. The HELPER MOLECULE IS RNA. RNA is a chemical that acts as a messenger for DNA. RNA carries the coded DNA message from the nucleus to the ribosomes. The ribosome is the worktable for making proteins. The message carried from the ribosome by mRNA (messenger RNA) must be decoded. DNA is written in one language, AT GC while the protein is written in a different language. tRNA (transfer RNA translates the DNA code into the code used to make the protein. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)directs the forming of the protein. The genetic code translates the DNA language into the protein language. Use the conversion chart to explain this process. GIVE to students:  DNA mRNA tRNA  -- rRNA  -- Protein

Homework #4: What does RNA do in the making of proteins? Answer in a complete, coherent sentence.

Tuesday: B Day

Aim: What happens when the genetic message changes?

Do Now: Take a worksheet to your desk and answer as many questions as you can.

Procedure: What happens if T combines with G instead of A? A mutation is any change in the copying of the DNA message. What happens if you hit the wrong key on a keyboard of the computer? Does the computer get a wrong message? The wrong base in the DNA code will give a wrong message to the cell. The result is a different kind of protein and then a different trait will appear. Lets look at a pedigree and see how hemophilia can start from a mutation. A mutation causes a change in the childs traits only when it takes place in the parents sex cells. What causes a mutation? Sunlight radiation, X rays, atomic bomb explosions, certain drugs, industrial pollutants, insecticides, and some food additives.  Define cloning: To make an exact copy of  a parent. Breeding: bringing together of two living things to produce offspring. Selective breeding: bringing together of two living things to produce desired traits in the offspring. Example: Cotton Plants, cows, vegetables and fruit, chickens with low cholesterol eggs. Spicing Genes and gene therapy: A bacterium receives a section of DNA from another organism. The DNA combination formed is recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is the DNA formed when DNA from one organism is put into the DNA of another organism. This is done to make certain chemicals: Insulin, human growth hormone. Gene therapy is the adding of a healthy gene into the body of a person suffering from a disorder caused by a mutated of defective gene. The healthy gene take the place of the defective gene on the chromosome. Disorders that may be cured using this technique are Cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, and certain muscle disorders. Do you think gene splicing should continue and should experiment further?  Use the reteaching idea map to create a study tool for changes in DNA.

Homework 5: Explain the difference between fraternal twins and identical twins.

Wednesday: A Day:

Aim: How well do I know the structure of DNA?

Do Now: Which nitrogen bases pair with each other? Adesine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine

Procedure: Take out your lab folders and record the following: Lab # 24. Students will create an accurate model of a DNA molecule. They will color code the bases  with paint and will then combine the parts of the molecule accurately using dowels and Styrofoam balls and rungs. All questions on the lab sheet must be answered with the model. There will be a team of four lab partners working on this project. The director will read and organize the team to follow directions, the constructor will actually put the model together, the artist will paint and draw what is necessary and the writer will complete the lab report questions about DNA.

Homework: There will be a test next Monday. Begin studying.

Thursday: B Day

Aim: What is the composition and structure of DNA?

Do Now: Gather all your lab materials and continue with DNA model which must be finished today.

Procedure: Continue with the lab DNA model. This must be completed today with the lab report.

Homework: There will be a test next Monday.

Friday: A Day     

Aim: To review for our DNA assessment.

Do Now: Examine these two strands of DNA code. Which contains the mutation? Figure A: A-T, T-C, C-G, C-G, G-C   and  C-G, G-C, T-A, A-T, G-C.

Procedure: Please take a study guide to your desk and begin completing each page. You may work with a partner. Use your text book and notebook to help you locate anything you may have forgotten. We will play a review game with the second period in the lab class today.

 

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