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Viruses and Bacteria
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The Mandella Environment

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Monday: B day

Aim: What is a virus and how does it differ from a cell?

Do Now: Have you ever suffered from the flu? What group are viruses and bacteria classified into? Lab # 7 Viruses.

Procedure: Discuss viruses that students have had. Stomach virus, flu, intestinal virus. Explain how they are neither living or non living, yet they have traits of both. Discuss and list their traits on the board. Traits: Small only seen with electron microscope. They come in many different kinds of shapes. A virus is made of a chromosome like part that is surrounded by a protein coat. Chromosome like part is the hereditary information and the protein coat makes the different shapes. It protects the hereditary info. They are not made of cells and have no cell parts. The only trait that viruses share with living things is its ability to reproduce. Viruses can only reproduce if it is inside  a living cell. Viruses can survive many years outside a cell. Viruses are not grouped into a kingdom because scientists cannot agree on their status. Viruses are grouped by the type of cell they infect. All the groups serve as hosts for viruses. Examples: Tobacco mosaic virus infects tobacco plants. Rabies infects the nervous system of mammals. Common cold virus only infects airway passage.  Viruses may also be classified by their shape and their size. Scientists think that viruses were here before cells while others think that they may have come from bacteria. Lab #7: Viruses: Students will make models of various types of viruses.

Homework #1: New Quarter starts today: Complete the virus worksheet by labeling its parts.


Tuesday: A Day

Aim: How does a virus infect a cell?

Do Now: What types of diseases can viruses cause in humans? See chart on page 73.

Procedure: How do viruses spread? Discuss the methods of spreading: wind or insects for plant viruses, sexual contact, sharing needles, for AIDS. Some viruses will infect a cell and remain hidden for long periods of time, like the AIDS virus. Demonstrate to students how this occurs and write the process on the board. Describe difference between a host and a parasite. USE THE RETEACHING SHEET AS A DIAGRAM.  Students can complete the study guide worksheet afterwards.

Homework #2: UPCO BOOK page 249 and 250 All virus questions.


Wednesday: B Day


Aim: How are viruses controlled?

Do Now: Take text book and copy idea map into notebooks.

Procedure: Discuss what happens when you have a virus. What medicines do you take? Do they get rid of the virus? It is hard to treat a virus. White blood cells can destroy a virus. If virus is not destroyed by white blood cells other blood cells make antibodies (they help destroy harmful viruses and or bacteria.) Some times it will just hold onto the virus until another white blood cell comes along and destroys it. Antibodies are like puzzle pieces they fit together with the only type of virus it kills. Interferon is another way to get rid of a virus. It is a chemical substance that interferes with how the virus reproduces. This chemical warns the other cells that a virus has just reproduced and allows the cells time to produce an antibody. Then the virus can’t infect that cell therefore it can’t reproduce.

Homework #3: Complete the check your understanding questions: Write question and answer

Thursday: A Day


Aim: What are the traits of bacteria?

Do Now: What kingdom do bacteria belong to? What special trait placed them into this group?

Procedure: Bacteria are in the moneran kingdom. They are unicellular and lack a defined nucleus. They have nuclear material. They lack many of the organelles found in plant and animal cells. The two groups are blue green bacteria and bacteria. Make a chart on the board and ask the students to list as many traits as they can by reading page 79-80 of text. Reconvene and share information. Label a diagram of a bacterial cell. Use the transparency and overhead.


Friday: B Day

Aim: How do we know that bacteria cause disease?Do Now: Students will complete a ten minute activity comparing a bacterial cell to an animal cell by completing a checklist on a handout.Procedure: Period 6 needs to complete their harmless and beneficial effects of bacteria during their first period.  Ask students to create a chart with two columns, Harmful and Beneficial Effects of Bacteria. Using the text have them list at least five effects of each and then discuss the harmful effects and the beneficial effects of bacteria. Harmful: Causes diseases like TB, Strep, Meningitis, Botulism, Pneumonia, Gonnorhea, Fire blight,  Spoil food, Pollute water. Helpful effects: Decomposers, Used to produce food and drugs. Ask students the Aim question and have them give some of their ideas. Then explain Koch's Postulates: Robert Koch, german scientist set out in 1876 to show that anthrax came from a bacteria and caused disease. There are steps to his experiment which are called Koch's postulates.  1. Organism must be present in a living thing when the disease occurs.  2. The organism must be taken from the host and grown in the laboratory.  3. When the organism from the lab is injected into the healthy hosts, they must cause the same disease in the healthy hosts.  4. The organism must be removed from the new hosts, grown in the lab, and show the same disease as the organism from the first host.    This is still used today. Some of these diseases caused by bacteria are communicable. Communicable means that they can be passed from one organism to another. They are spread by: coughing, sneezing, food, clothes, silverware, toothbrushes, drinking water, sexual contact, and insects.  Complete the UPCO Book questions on Pages 251 and 252 Beneficial and Harmful Bacteria.

Have a SUCCESSFUL 2nd Marking Period!

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